case study 18. Case Study, Chapter 18, Intraoperative Nursing Management1. Pearl Richards, 69 years of age, is a female patient who is in the operating room for a repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The patient has a history of hypertension controlled with medications, osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and has smoked two packs of cigarettes per day for 40 years.What nursing interventions are instituted to reduce the surgical risk factors related to the patient’s age?Explain the role of the nurse in providing patient safety measures during the intraoperative period.2. Mr. Bond is a 32-year-old Caucasian man who plays professional football. He was admitted for repair of a rotator cuff injury sustained in a game. In excellent shape, Mr. Bond has a muscular build and his body fat is 18%. Mr. Bond is transferred to the operating room, and the anesthesiologist begins to administer general anesthesia. During the induction of anesthesia, Mr. Bond develops tachycardia and dysrhythmias. His condition continues to deteriorate and he becomes severely hypotensive and exhibits decreased cardiac output. The anesthesiologist states that Mr. Bond is developing malignant hyperthermia.What risk factor does Mr. Bond have for malignant hyperthermia?What clinical manifestations of malignant hyperthermia does Mr. Bond demonstrate?Based on the patient’s condition, the surgical procedure is stopped and 100% oxygen is started. Additionally, a muscle relaxant and sodium bicarbonate are administered. What are the rationales for these medications?